Embedded Systems: Emerging Technological Trends

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Thilak Kumar, Head of Field Engineering Operations, Wind River
Thilak Kumar, Head of Field Engineering Operations, Wind River

Thilak Kumar, Head of Field Engineering Operations, Wind River

Overview of the emerging technological trends in the embedded systems technology

Embedded Systems include a vast array of applications ranging all the way from tiny gadgets such as wearables to large complex systems such as satellite systems or Wireless communication systems. Each of these systems have their own set of operational requirements and limitations. While some systems need heavy compute power and memory with no limitations whatsoever on energy requirements, the others are extremely sensitive to energy requirements and require very little compute power and memory devices. Some systems require extremely complex, certified operating systems and others just need a few lines of assembly or C code. With such wide range of applications, here are a few trends in the embedded systems.

  • 64-bit and Multicore: While Multi-core has been around for a few years now, its adoption is gaining momentum in certain markets only recently. A new addition to this power segment is the availability of 64-bit processors that now enables a system designer to leverage more than 4GB of RAM. Embedded operating system vendors offer support for 64-bit hardware architectures that theoretically makes for faster and more efficient system.
  • Virtualization: With systems getting larger and complex, there’s a lot of emphasis on systems consolidation in order to reduce SWaP (Space, Weight and Power) as well as the overall cost of the system. In order to support this, we need operating environments that are capable of running multiple applications on a single hardware. This necessitates a layer such as Hypervisor that can virtualize multiple operating systems and efficiently run them using common hardware resources yet ensure that each of these operating systems do not interfere in each other’s operation.
  • Connectivity: With IoT becoming more and more pervasive and connectivity becoming one of the foundation pillars for enabling IoT deployments, there is more emphasis on the need for various connectivity protocols. These protocols cater to Personal Area Networks, Local Area Networks as well as Wide Area Networks. There is a need for variety of protocols ranging all the way from Industrial Protocols such as BacNet or EtherCat to automotive protocols such as CAN (Controller Area Network) to communication protocols for 3G and 4G. The amount of connectivity support available is very critical for the successful adoption of the platform.
  • Security: With more and more devices getting connected to the Internet, security becomes a key consideration. Most importantly, security has to be designed in the system, and cannot be an afterthought. Security needs to be addressed by taking into account Device Security, Data Security and Communication Security.  Developers also need to account for security at each phase of the device lifecycle atthe design phase and it is critical to prevent the introduction of malicious code during the development process. Prevention measures might include signed binary delivery, assuring the authenticity and non-alteration of code, and developing on a software platform that has been certified under industrial security standards such as IEC 62443 and IEC 27034. In the execution phase, the goal is to establish a “root of trust” to prevent untrusted binaries from running, which in turn ensures that the right software is in place on the right hardware and that they trust each other. Establishing a root of trust might entail the use of secure boot technology and cryptographic key signatures to prevent unsigned code from executing. During the operation of the device, multiple measures can be deployed to prevent malicious attacks, including controls to prevent unauthorized access and securing networks using encryption. And when the device is at rest, measures such as encrypted storage and secure data containers should be in place to prevent onboard data access.
  • Freemium Operating Systems: Another emerging trend in the embedded Operating Systems space is the availability of Freemium Operating Systems. These offerings are proven for commercial deployments and the barrier for adoption is extremely low. One such offering is Wind River Rocket which is an embedded OS developed for Rapid IoT development and supports various classes of MCUs (Micro Controller Units) – ideal for building sensors, wearables, industrial controllers and other resource-constrained smart, connected devices.

Design challenges that engineers are facing when designing an application specific embedded system

When designing an embedded system, design considerations should be mapped to the specific requirements of the end-to-end solution which typically involves devices, systems, and infrastructure. For example, certain systems might be significantly constrained in terms of compute resources, physical space, power, or other quantities. Other devices, systems, and infrastructures might be safety-critical and will need to be highly reliable for many years.  These and many other market- and application-specific considerations must be addressed in the course of meeting opportunities and challenges. Some key aspects that need to be considered are:

  • The Operating System: Typically, application specific embedded systems require some sort of operating system. The choice amongst various options depends on a range of factors. Micro kernels are well suited to the needs of very small footprints, while at the same time meeting performance, reliability, and real-time requirements for even critical sensors and devices. Moreover, their simplicity enables them to be certified where necessary at a relatively lower cost. Some of the target use cases for a microkernel include wearables, low cost industrial controllers and sensor hubs. Offering a more robust feature set than a microkernel, a real-time operating system (RTOS) provides real-time behavior for relatively more complex devices and networks. The safety, security, reliability, scalability, and performance of RTOS’es are well proven with the most demanding embedded systems for airplanes, spacecraft, automobiles, and medical devices. RTOS’es are also readily certifiable. An RTOS is often the only viable operating environment for mission and life-critical devices. On the other hand, Embedded Linux Developers who are more concerned about using open source software will find embedded Linux a great fit for their application. A general purpose embedded Linux distribution is used in many embedded implementations today. For critical communications infrastructures that require always-on service, Carrier Grade Linux is an ideal solution. Carrier Grade Linux distributions comply with enhanced specifications for availability, scalability, manageability, and service response to meet specialized needs such as those of many networking and communications systems. Likewise, those developing for the cloud may be OS-agnostic.
  • Data Management in the Cloud: With IoT to support seamless connectivity and communication between devices and the cloud, some level of OS integration with a data management system is required. The device-management system is a centralized console that serves to control and manage edge devices. Device-side APIs enable extensibility to diverse types of embedded software operating on the edge device, while cloud-side APIs provide for secured connectivity to various big-data stores and enterprise IT infrastructures, as well as data sharing with other cloud applications.

Business decisions related to data management must consider factors such as the following:

  1. Data ingress and storage: Architects must consider whether or not they will connect to live streaming data sources, whether data will be stored to a repository, and the positioning of the analytics engine. Security plays an important role here.
  1. Data egress and destinations: In determining what data is to be output, one must consider that each piece of data passed out and each destination target adds cost and complexity to the system as a whole. Security plays an important role here as well.
  1. Protocols used: The selection of protocols utilized by the solution has direct bearing on system extensibility and security, as well as on bandwidth and other connectivity requirements. Data management considerations will also arise with regard to the characteristics of the ultimate data source. Large networks of inexpensive sensors will require back ends that can tolerate significant numbers of failures at the edge.
  • Designing with the Right Level of Security: Both consumers and producers recognize the need for robust security measures and the necessity of incorporating just enough security is a primary consideration. The degree of security must be high enough to address all foreseeable threat scenarios, flexible enough to respond to emerging ones, and low enough to enable favorable cost, extensibility, and interoperability.  Security models and techniques must accommodate devices’ inherent resource constraints. Just as mobile phones are unable to use many of the security approaches and applications that are common for PCs and servers, small-footprint embedded devices will be limited even further. This set of considerations creates challenges for solution providers as they identify new threat vectors and respond appropriately.

Most aspects of security can be considered within three categories:

  1. Installation environment: The area and circumstances where devices will operate affect decisions such as what physical protection against tampering and theft is required.
  1. Access and connectivity: The types of potential connectivity and associated protocols (e.g., Internet access, Bluetooth, near field communication) suggest specific security measures to be taken.
  1. Data storage: Various types of data, their sensitivity, and regulatory requirements entail different types of security measures for data at rest, as does the storage medium and whether it is local or remote.

Another way of conceiving the security requirements for devices is to consider the requirements at various stages of solution development and operation. Correcting security issues earlier in the solution lifecycle is more cost-effective, since once the solution is in the field, deficiencies may be difficult or impossible to correct. This effect is intensified by the high number of low-cost units deployed with their remote installation points, and the long periods of service that are typical. Accordingly, the potential for losses in terms of credibility and customer confidence can be severe. Security must also protect these solutions throughout the stages of operation. At boot time, even simple devices must often provide a trusted environment where unintended (and possibly malicious) code cannot execute. During extended run times, intrusions, data leaks, and other compromises must be prevented. In addition, during power-down and unpowered states, data at rest (even transitorily so) must be protected from unauthorized access.

Parameters for design, development and testing of embedded systems

Embedded Systems, over the last few decades, has transformed from being a simple, dedicated function device to a more complex, smart, intelligent and connected device. Wind River, as a leader in the embedded software space for the last 35 years, has witnessed this growth where the complexity of software has grown tremendously. Couple of decades ago, a simple real-time operating system was sufficient to meet all the requirements of device manufacturers but today, a full blown technology stack with all of the middleware components for connectivity, security and manageability is a bare minimum requirement for some applications and this is only expected to increase in future. As the amount of software embedded within intelligent devices continues to increase, the challenge of integrating, verifying, and validating the same also expands. Engineering teams are routinely required to implement and test an ever increasing number of features within fixed schedules. The testing challenge is multiplied when complex new run-time technologies are employed in the device and when development and test teams are geographically distributed across the globe. While the goal of testing is to find defects, the isolation and elimination of faults in running devices can also be complex and can delay time-to-market. Given the business pressures on today’s device manufacturers, best-of-class teams are turning to more agile, iterative development cycles that link testing and development tighter than ever before.

With Internet of Things, developing and testing software and configuration variants for applications and systems makes it even more challenging. The systems can be physically large, and often contain hundreds or thousands of nodes, which is tough to manage in a physical lab. Testing software that will run across thousands of nodes requires the ability to automate, inspect, and control tests, but automating tests across hordes of physical machines is a challenge.

There are various parameters that needs to be considered during design, development and testing. Some of the key ones are:

  • Hardware and Operating System: Depending on the application, the selection of the hardware platform plays a very important role throughout the lifecycle of the device. For instance, some of the Industrial devices, which are deployed in the field for a long period of time typically ranging from 10 – 15 years, it is necessary to choose a hardware platform that offer long term support without having to face the problem of obsolescence. In case of safety-critical application, it is essential to choose a platform that is certifiable for those environments. Likewise, for the operating system selection, factors such as long term support and safety certification plays an important role.
  • Drivers and Board Support: This is the lowest level of software in the system and it is this layer that determines how well you can leverage the underlying hardware platform. Engineers need to ensure that the drivers and hardware work well together.
  • Protocols and Communications:Wireless networks are by nature unreliable, and faults have to be handled gracefully. What happens in the system when packets get lost or garbled, or a node never sends a reply that it was supposed to send? The connection between a pair of nodes might be interrupted due to changes in the physical world (like a train passing between two nodes on either side of a railroad track), and what happens to connections and transmissions in such a case? What if a source of radio noise (like a microwave oven) is close to a particular node, blocking its ability to send by filling the airwaves? This layer needs to designed, developed and tested to be as robust as possible.
  • Security and Authentication:Security is a very important component of any connected embedded system, and security has to be designed in and cannot be an afterthought. Managing the membership of trusted devices is one of the key problems in device security. System robustness to network-level attacks has to be explored, and the vulnerability of nodes and gateways has to be assessed and should be designed and tested for.

Main application areas for embedded systems, Technological changes and innovations in future

As those involved in the embedded industry know, the Internet of Things (IoT) has enormous potential to drive both economic growth and social change. IoT systems continue to be highly complex and take time to develop, implement and maintain. With 85 percent of technology still unconnected, and security threats being pervasive, it is still very much the Wild West with vast new territory to explore.

Also, in this day and age, millions of consumers and businesses are connected to a network in one form or another. As a result, the systems and datacenters used to transport and house content are getting bigger, more pervasive, and increasingly complex. Add to this the explosive amount of data crossing the network and it quickly becomes apparent that companies and service providers face a daunting challenge.

Network functions virtualization (NFV) promises to ease the burden by granting service providers the flexibility to move network functions from dedicated appliances to generic servers. Using standard IT virtualization technology, NFV aims to consolidate many network equipment types on to industry-standard, high-volume servers, switches, and storage; doing so makes the networks more agile and efficient.

With recent advances in wearables and sensors, they can now be integrated into various accessories such as garments, hats, wrist bands, socks, shoes, eye glasses and other devices such as wristwatches, headphones and smartphones. Their application is far more pervasive now than in the past and they will fuel a lot of innovation.

Growth in embedded smart device sector

By 2020, it is predicted that there’ll be more than 50 billion devices in the world.  According to a recent market report Embedded Systems Market was valued at USD 152.94 billion in 2014 and reach USD 233.13 billion by 2021. As its application continues to grow in Automotive, Industrial, Medical, Network and Telecommunication, Aerospace and Defense markets, it is on a growth trajectory and offers plenty of opportunity for Innovators, Design Manufactures and Device Makers.

About the Author:

Thilak Ramanna currently heads Field Engineering Operations at Wind River, an Intel Company for its APAC region. He is an Internet of Things enthusiast with more than 15 years of experience in Design and Engineering, Project Management, Product Management and Sales and Marketing.

Thilak Kumar, Head of Field Engineering Operations, Wind River

1-Could you please give us an overview of the emerging technological trends in the embedded systems technology?

Embedded Systems include a vast array of applications ranging all the way from tiny gadgets such as wearables to large complex systems such as satellite systems or Wireless communication systems. Each of these systems have their own set of operational requirements and limitations. While some systems need heavy compute power and memory with no limitations whatsoever on energy requirements, the others are extremely sensitive to energy requirements and require very little compute power and memory devices. Some systems require extremely complex, certified operating systems and others just need a few lines of assembly or C code. With such wide range of applications, here are a few trends in the embedded systems.

  • 64-bit and Multicore: While Multi-core has been around for a few years now, its adoption is gaining momentum in certain markets only recently. A new addition to this power segment is the availability of 64-bit processors that now enables a system designer to leverage more than 4GB of RAM. Embedded operating system vendors offer support for 64-bit hardware architectures that theoretically makes for faster and more efficient system.
  • Virtualization: With systems getting larger and complex, there’s a lot of emphasis on systems consolidation in order to reduce SWaP (Space, Weight and Power) as well as the overall cost of the system. In order to support this, we need operating environments that are capable of running multiple applications on a single hardware. This necessitates a layer such as Hypervisor that can virtualize multiple operating systems and efficiently run them using common hardware resources yet ensure that each of these operating systems do not interfere in each other’s operation.
  • Connectivity:With IoT becoming more and more pervasive and connectivity becoming one of the foundation pillars for enabling IoT deployments, there is more emphasis on the need for various connectivity protocols. These protocols cater to Personal Area Networks, Local Area Networks as well as Wide Area Networks. There is a need for variety of protocols ranging all the way from Industrial Protocols such as BacNet or EtherCat to automotive protocols such as CAN (Controller Area Network) to communication protocols for 3G and 4G. The amount of connectivity support available is very critical for the successful adoption of the platform.
  • Security: With more and more devices getting connected to the Internet, security becomes a key consideration. Most importantly, security has to be designed in the system, and cannot be an afterthought. Security needs to be addressed by taking into account Device Security, Data Security and Communication Security.  Developers also need to account for security at each phase of the device lifecycle atthe design phase and it is critical to prevent the introduction of malicious code during the development process. Prevention measures might include signed binary delivery, assuring the authenticity and non-alteration of code, and developing on a software platform that has been certified under industrial security standards such as IEC 62443 and IEC 27034. In the execution phase, the goal is to establish a “root of trust” to prevent untrusted binaries from running, which in turn ensures that the right software is in place on the right hardware and that they trust each other. Establishing a root of trust might entail the use of secure boot technology and cryptographic key signatures to prevent unsigned code from executing. During the operation of the device, multiple measures can be deployed to prevent malicious attacks, including controls to prevent unauthorized access and securing networks using encryption. And when the device is at rest, measures such as encrypted storage and secure data containers should be in place to prevent onboard data access.
  • Freemium Operating Systems: Another emerging trend in the embedded Operating Systems space is the availability of Freemium Operating Systems. These offerings are proven for commercial deployments and the barrier for adoption is extremely low. One such offering is Wind River Rocket which is an embedded OS developed for Rapid IoT development and supports various classes of MCUs (Micro Controller Units) – ideal for building sensors, wearables, industrial controllers and other resource-constrained smart, connected devices.

2-What are the main design challenges that engineers are facing when designing an application specific embedded system?

When designing an embedded system, design considerations should be mapped to the specific requirements of the end-to-end solution which typically involves devices, systems, and infrastructure. For example, certain systems might be significantly constrained in terms of compute resources, physical space, power, or other quantities. Other devices, systems, and infrastructures might be safety-critical and will need to be highly reliable for many years.  These and many other market- and application-specific considerations must be addressed in the course of meeting opportunities and challenges. Some key aspects that need to be considered are:

  • The Operating System: Typically, application specific embedded systems require some sort of operating system. The choice amongst various options depends on a range of factors. Microkernels are well suited to the needs of very small footprints, while at the same time meeting performance, reliability, and real-time requirements for even critical sensors and devices. Moreover, their simplicity enables them to be certified where necessary at a relatively lower cost. Some of the target use cases for a microkernel include wearables, low cost industrial controllers and sensor hubs. Offering a more robust feature set than a microkernel, a real-time operating system (RTOS) provides real-time behavior for relatively more complex devices and networks. The safety, security, reliability, scalability, and performance of RTOS’es are well proven with the most demanding embedded systems for airplanes, spacecraft, automobiles, and medical devices. RTOS’es are also readily certifiable. An RTOS is often the only viable operating environment for mission and life-critical devices. On the other hand, Embedded Linux Developers who are more concerned about using open source software will find embedded Linux a great fit for their application. A general purpose embedded Linux distribution is used in many embedded implementations today. For critical communications infrastructures that require always-on service, Carrier Grade Linux is an ideal solution. Carrier Grade Linux distributions comply with enhanced specifications for availability, scalability, manageability, and service response to meet specialized needs such as those of many networking and communications systems. Likewise, those developing for the cloud may be OS-agnostic.
  • Data Management in the Cloud: With IoT to support seamless connectivity and communication between devices and the cloud, some level of OS integration with a data management system is required. The device-management system is a centralized console that serves to control and manage edge devices. Device-side APIs enable extensibility to diverse types of embedded software operating on the edge device, while cloud-side APIs provide for secured connectivity to various big-data stores and enterprise IT infrastructures, as well as data sharing with other cloud applications.

Business decisions related to data management must consider factors such as the following:

  • Data ingress and storage: Architects must consider whether or not they will connect to live streaming data sources, whether data will be stored to a repository, and the positioning of the analytics engine. Security plays an important role here.

  • Data egress and destinations: In determining what data is to be output, one must consider that each piece of data passed out and each destination target adds cost and complexity to the system as a whole. Security plays an important role here as well.

  • Protocols used: The selection of protocols utilized by the solution has direct bearing on system extensibility and security, as well as on bandwidth and other connectivity requirements. Data management considerations will also arise with regard to the characteristics of the ultimate data source. Large networks of inexpensive sensors will require back ends that can tolerate significant numbers of failures at the edge.

  • Designing with the Right Level of Security: Both consumers and producers recognize the need for robust security measures and the necessity of incorporating just enough security is a primary consideration. The degree of security must be high enough to address all foreseeable threat scenarios, flexible enough to respond to emerging ones, and low enough to enable favorable cost, extensibility, and interoperability.  Security models and techniques must accommodate devices’ inherent resource constraints. Just as mobile phones are unable to use many of the security approaches and applications that are common for PCs and servers, small-footprint embedded devices will be limited even further. This set of considerations creates challenges for solution providers as they identify new threat vectors and respond appropriately.

Most aspects of security can be considered within three categories:

  • Installation environment: The area and circumstances where devices will operate affect decisions such as what physical protection against tampering and theft is required.

  • Access and connectivity: The types of potential connectivity and associated protocols (e.g., Internet access, Bluetooth, nearfield communication) suggest specific security measures to be taken.

  • Data storage: Various types of data, their sensitivity, and regulatory requirements entail different types of security measures for data at rest, as does the storage medium and whether it is local or remote.

Another way of conceiving the security requirements for devices is to consider the requirements at various stages of solution development and operation. Correcting security issues earlier in the solution lifecycle is more cost-effective, since once the solution is in the field, deficiencies may be difficult or impossible to correct. This effect is intensified by the high number of low-cost units deployed with their remote installation points, and the long periods of service that are typical. Accordingly, the potential for losses in terms of credibility and customer confidence can be severe. Security must also protect these solutions throughout the stages of operation. At boot time, even simple devices must often provide a trusted environment where unintended (and possibly malicious) code cannot execute. During extended run times, intrusions, data leaks, and other compromises must be prevented. In addition, during power-down and unpowered states, data at rest (even transitorily so) must be protected from unauthorized access.

3-What are the parameters that play a crucial part during the design, development and testing of embedded systems, taking into account the customer demands and the present technological scenario?

Embedded Systems, over the last few decades, has transformed from being a simple, dedicated function device to a more complex, smart, intelligent and connected device. Wind River, as a leader in the embedded software space for the last 35 years, has witnessed this growth where the complexity of software has grown tremendously. Couple of decades ago, a simple real-time operating system was sufficient to meet all the requirements of device manufacturers but today, a full blown technology stack with all of the middleware components for connectivity, security and manageability is a bare minimum requirement for some applications and this is only expected to increase in future.As the amount of software embedded within intelligent devices continues to increase, the challenge of integrating, verifying, and validating the samealso expands. Engineering teams are routinely required to implement and test an ever increasing number of features within fixed schedules. The testing challenge is multiplied when complex new run-time technologies are employed in the device and when development and test teams are geographically distributed across the globe. While the goal of testing is to find defects, the isolation and elimination of faults in running devices can also be complex and can delay time-to-market. Given the business pressures on today’s device manufacturers, best-of-class teams are turning to more agile, iterative development cycles that link testing and development tighter than ever before.

With Internet of Things, developing and testing software and configuration variants for applications and systems makes it even more challenging. The systems can be physically large, and often contain hundreds or thousands of nodes, which is tough to manage in a physical lab. Testing software that will run across thousands of nodes requires the ability to automate, inspect, and control tests, but automating tests across hordes of physical machines is a challenge.

There are various parameters that needs to be considered during design, development and testing. Some of the key ones are

  • Hardware and Operating System: Depending on the application, the selection of the hardware platform plays a very important role throughout the lifecycle of the device. For instance, some of the Industrial devices, which are deployed in the field for a long period of time typically ranging from 10 – 15 years, it is necessary to choose a hardware platform that offer long term support without having to face the problem of obsolescence. In case of safety-critical application, it is essential to choose a platform that is certifiable for those environments. Likewise, for the operating system selection, factors such as long term support and safety certification plays an important role.

 

  • Drivers and Board Support: This is the lowest level of software in the system and it is this layer that determines how well you can leverage the underlying hardware platform. Engineers need to ensure that the drivers and hardware work well together.

  • Protocols and Communications: Wireless networks are by nature unreliable, and faults have to be handled gracefully. What happens in the system when packets get lost or garbled, or a node never sends a reply that it was supposed to send? The connection between a pair of nodes might be interrupted due to changes in the physical world (like a train passing between two nodes on either side of a railroad track), and what happens to connections and transmissions in such a case? What if a source of radio noise (like a microwave oven) is close to a particular node, blocking its ability to send by filling the airwaves? This layer needs to designed, developed and tested to be as robust as possible.

  • Security and Authentication: Security is a very important component of any connected embedded system, and security has to be designed in and cannot be an afterthought. Managing the membership of trusted devices is one of the key problems in device security. System robustness to network-level attacks has to be explored, and the vulnerability of nodes and gateways has to be assessed and should be designed and tested for.

4-What are the main application areas that are witnessing an upsurge in its demand for embedded systems? And what technological changes and innovations can we anticipate in this field in the future?

As those involved in the embeddedindustry know, the Internet of Things(IoT) has enormous potential to drive both economic growth and social change. While we are starting to see shifts happen, IoT systems continue to be highly complex and take time to develop, implement and maintain. With 85 percent of technology still unconnected, and security threats being pervasive, it is still very much the Wild West with vast new territory to explore.

Also, in this day and age, millions of consumers and businesses are connected to a network in one form or another. As a result, the systems and datacenters used to transport and house content are getting bigger, more pervasive, and increasingly complex. Add to this the explosive amount of data crossing the network and it quickly becomes apparent that companies and service providers face a daunting challenge.

Network functions virtualization (NFV) promises to ease the burden by granting service providers the flexibility to move network functions from dedicated appliances to generic servers. Using standard IT virtualization technology, NFV aims to consolidate many network equipment types on to industry-standard, high-volume servers, switches, and storage; doing so makes the networks more agile and efficient

With recent advances in wearables and sensors, they cannow be integrated into various accessories such as garments, hats, wrist bands, socks, shoes, eyeglasses and other devices such as wristwatches, headphones and smartphones. Their application is far more pervasive now than in the past and they will fuel a lot of innovation.

5-What are the future technologies that are going to get a kick start because of embedded system applications?

 Covered in previous section

6-How fast is the embedded smart device sector growing and what possibilities will it open up in the recent future?

By 2020, it is predicted that there’ll be more than 50 billion devices in the world.  According to a recent market report published by Transparency Market Research, Embedded Systems Market wasvalued at USD 152.94 billion in 2014 and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 6.4% and reach USD 233.13 billion by 2021. NASSCOM report indicates that the current Embedded Software market size is relatively small and there is a huge opportunity that remains untapped in this segment in India. As its application continues to grow in Automotive, Industrial, Medical, Network and Telecommunication, Aerospace and Defense markets, it is on a growth trajectory and offers plenty of opportunity for Innovators, Design Manufactures and Device Makers.

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